By Herbert G. Gardiner, PGS

Ballad of East and West

“Oh, East is East, and West is West, and never the twain shall meet,

Till Earth and sky stand presently at God’s great judgment seat,

But there is neither East nor West, Border, nor Breed, nor Birth,

When two strong men stand face to face, though they come from the ends of the earth!…”

-Rudyard Kipling

Unfortunately a great many people are not aware of what  follows the opening fourteen words of Brother Kipling’s “Ballad  of East and West,” and as a result they reach an erroneous conclusion. Not realizing that their understanding is exactly opposite of what Kipling was actually trying to convey, they frequently quote the first lines of the ballad to bolster  their position that the gulf between the people of the East  and those of the West  is so great, that they can never really understand each other nor can they  work together. But Kipling was dead right. Men who hail from opposite sections of the globe of widely diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds, of different races and  religious persuasions, can and do work together in harmony. Such men not  only  work together for the common good, but in many instances their efforts result in outstanding accomplishments of a magnitude that commands world-wide recognition.

Over  the years some Freemasons  have proved Kipling was right, both within the Masonic fraternity, and also in relationships between Freemasons and non-Masons.  Freemasons like Douglas MacArthur whose close association with the Philippines and post-war Japan, and Clare Lee Channault whose American Volunteer Group,  (The Flying Tigers) who fought  for Nationalist China in early 1942, and outflew  and outfought Imperial Japan’s finest pilots in the skies over China, Burma and India, knew exactly what Kipling meant in 1889, when he wrote “The Ballad of East and West,” they had lived it. (Chennault’s battleground later became  known as the CBI Theater in World War II),

For purposes of our story we will focus on  Douglas MacArthur.  Although he served in France, Australia, New Guinea, Korea, Japan and other parts of the world, he is most closely  identified with the Philippines. Before we look at MacArthur the Freemason, we should pause to  note a few highlights  about the amazing  career  of this unusual man who was frequently at the vortex of  controversy.

Douglas MacArthur graduated first in his class from the  U.S. Military Academy in 1903, and had a meteoric military career. He served in the Philippines prior to the first World War, was Commander of the famous 42nd Rainbow Division in France during WW I and was  wounded twice. He became the superintendent of West Point in 1919. From 1930-1935 he was the Army Chief of Staff. In 1935 he became military advisor to the government of the Philippines. He retired from active duty in 1937, but was recalled in July 1941, and was appointed Commander of U.S. and Philippine Armed Forces in the Philippines.

When Imperial Japan’s Forces attacked the Philippines in 1941, MacArthur’s  American and Filipino troops conducted a stubborn defense, compelling the invaders to pay a high toll for the Bataan peninsula and the Island fortress Corregidor.

Regrettably, neither the U.S. nor the Philippine Armed Forces were strong enough, or adequately equipped to repel an invading foe with the experience and of the size of the Imperial Japanese Forces. Unfortunately reinforcements and equipment were not available either.

On March 11, 1942, MacArthur was ordered against his wishes to leave the Philippines by President Roosevelt, and was evacuated to Australia. Arriving  there weary from the arduous journey, he was besieged by reporters and casually commented, “The President of the United States ordered me to proceed from Corregidor to Australia for the purpose, as I understand it, of organizing the American offensive against Japan, a primary object of which is the relief of the Philippines. I came through and I shall return.” This last phrase “I shall return” came to symbolize the determination of General MacArthur and the United States, to drive the Imperial Japanese Forces out of the Philippines.

In 1944, Douglas MacArthur became a 5-star general. Return he did, and the American Armed Forces and the Philippine guerrillas took the Philippines in 1945. Other then a few ships and aircraft, the Australians and the British were told in advance that they would be excluded from the operation. As far as General MacArthur and most of the American leaders were concerned, it was a private fight and except for the forces of the Philippines, nobody else was invited.

On September 2, 1945, as  Allied Supreme  Commander he accepted the surrender of the defeated Empire of Japan aboard the battleship Missouri. Admiral Chester Nimitz accepted the surrender on behalf of the United States.


Between the end of the war in the Pacific in 1945, and 1950, Douglas MacArthur was Chief of the Occupation Forces of Japan, and was responsible for the introduction of a democratic constitutional government in that country. Douglas MacArthur was a controversial figure, and like most men who have held positions of great power, he had his supporters and his antagonists. However, even many of his severest critics have credited him with doing an outstanding job during the years  that he was Chief of the Occupation Forces,  and the de facto ruler of Japan.  President Truman told him: “You will exercise your authority  as you deem it necessary to carry out your mission. Our relations with Japan do not rest on a contractual basis, but on unconditional surrender…Our authority is supreme.” In essence MacArthur had been given a blank check, and he represented himself as being soley responsible for administering Japan. He had enormous  and absolute power,  and did not hesitate to utilize it. In the judgment  of many analysts and historians MacArthur’s governing of Japan was his greatest achievement, surpassing all of his military victories. Historians  and “Think Tanks” alike believe that if ever a man’s career and personality fitted him for such a role MacArthur’s did. As the ruler of Japan his flair for melodrama and personal splendor and his organizational experience were ideally suited for the task. It was MacArthur the American Shogun, more than anyone else, who helped to lay the foundation for modern day Japan.


At the outbreak of the Korean conflict MacArthur was back on active duty as head of the United Nations Forces there. His Inchon landings, and overall operation during September 15-25, 1950, when the North Koreans were rolled back, is still considered one of the most brilliant exercises in modern amphibious warfare. Unfortunately, his subsequent advance to the Yalu river and Chinese border, provoked massive Chinese intervention which resulted in near disaster for the U.N. Forces. He then began to issue public statements on how the Korean war should be fought, and became embroiled in a conflict with his superiors in Washington over the aims of the war, which led to his being relieved by President Harry Truman.


At the time of  MacArthur’s removal President  Truman was also a Past Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Missouri. Before dismissing General MacArthur, President  Truman consulted with his advisors, which included Generals George C. Marshall who was Secretary of Defense at the time, and Omar  N. Bradley who  was chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. In December of 1941, George Marshall had been made a Mason “at sight” by the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia. Omar Bradley had been raised in West Point Lodge No.877, Highland Falls, New York in 1923. Dean Atcheson and Averell Harriman were also consulted. The recommendation to dismiss General MacArthur was unanimous…it was not the best of times for the Craft. Douglas MacArthur was relieved by  Lieutenant General Matthew B. Ridgeway who was also a Freemason.  Like Bradley, he was a member of West Point Lodge  No. 877, and was raised on May 1, 1924. He received his 32nd degree in the A.A.S.R. (S/J) at Tokyo, Japan in October, 1951.

Douglas MacArthur received a tumultuous welcome when he returned to the United States, after  having been away  for fourteen years. In the closing statement of his address to a joint session of Congress, he said  in part “…Old soldiers never die; they just fade away. And like the old soldier of the ballad, I now close my military service and just fade away an old soldier who tried to do his duty as God gave him the light to see that duty, Good-bye.”


At the outbreak of the Spanish American War on February 15, 1898, when the  U.S.S. Maine was destroyed by a mysterious explosion in Havana harbor killing 268 crew members, very  few Americans were aware of the fact that a Philippine revolution against Spain  had begun almost two years earlier on August 26, 1896.  The United States formally declared war on Spain on April 21, 1898.

Spanish interest in the Philippines began with Ferdinand Magellan’s expedition that departed from Spain on September 20, 1519, and after an extremely hazardous journey that almost decimated  his fleet, the shattered  remnants of a once proud expedition arrived on the Island of Samar on March 17, 1521. Later he moved to the  Island  of Cebu where he proceeded  to convert the islanders to Catholicism. During this period some of his officers complained that Magellan seemed obsessed with converting the Filipinos, and appeared to forget that his real mission was to reach the Moluccas (Spice Islands). Shortly after arriving at Cebu Magellan made a fatal mistake by interfering in a local feud on the  little Island of Mactan, and  was killed on April 27, 1521 by Lapulapu one of the Filipino chiefs.

The Spanish conquest of the Philippines  began with the arrival of Miguel Lopez Legazpi on the Island of Cebu in 1565. After capturing Manila on the Island of Luzon, he declared it the capitol of the Philippines on June 24, 1572, and  shortly after he died. With the conquests of Lagazpi, the conquistadors and the friars that followed him, they paved the way for  Spanish colonial  rule that lasted for over three centuries.

The Spanish colonization of the Philippines had produced an all powerful governing force consisting of two components, the Spanish ruling officials, and the  Catholic church in the form of the friars.  The Spanish aristocracy ran the government, frequently with the help of the friars who in addition to acquiring vast tracts of land for themselves,  totally controlled the entire education system in accordance with   what in their personal judgment was best for the Filipino population. The Filipino people had no say or influence in their government or their education.

Freemasonry was not tolerated by the Spanish government,  and the friars used every means at their disposal to prevent Freemasonry from getting a foothold  in the Philippines. The first official doctrine banning Freemasonry in the Philippines was a Royal Letter Patent dated January 19, 1816, issued by the Council of the Regency of Spain and the Indies, and reads in part as follows: “One of the most serious evils that  afflict the Church and State is the growth of the order of Freemasons, so repeatedly proscribed by the Sovereign Pontiffs  and by all Catholic Sovereigns of Europe…It is to the advantage of the spiritual welfare of the faithful and for the peace of nations to prevent, with the most scrupulous vigilance,  the meetings of this class of people; and having discovered in the Indies some of those wicked  secret religious societies…I  have decided…to order and command all Judges in those dominions of the ordinary Royal Jurisdiction…shall proceed against the above mentioned Freemasons…”

Eventually Freemasonry  became very well established  in the Philippines, primarily  by the same patriotic men who fought for independence first from Spain and later from the United States. But this took place after Spain had been defeated by  the Americans, and Spanish rule was no longer in existence and the governing power of the friars  was eliminated.

On May 1, 1898, the Spanish Fleet in the Philippines under  the command of Admiral Montojo was destroyed in the Battle of Manila Bay by the American Asiatic  Squadron under the command of Commodore (later admiral) George Dewey. The command “You may fire when ready, Captain Gridley,” was given by Commodore Dewey at 5:41 a.m. at a distance of three miles, and America roared forth  her first battle cry to the Spanish held Philippines  from the starboard eight-inch  gun in the forward turret of the Flagship  Olympia. On August 13th the Spanish Army units in Manila surrendered to the American forces under the command of Major  General Wesley Merritt. In America both the government and the people  were divided on the issue of the future status  of the Philippines. Initially many of the Filipino leaders thought the Philippines would be treated like Cuba and granted freedom. But in the end, the Philippines  came under the United States.

On  December 10, 1898 a peace  treaty was signed between the United States and Spain in Paris. Under the terms of the treaty, Spain reluctantly ceded the Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico to the United States for $20,000,000, with Cuba becoming an independent country. No Filipino representatives were present.

Neither Emilo Aguinaldo the president of the Philippine  Revolutionary government and one of its  foremost Freemasons, nor the vast majority of his countrymen had any  intention of exchanging the despotism of the friars and  their Spanish oppressors for the paternalism of the American liberator. They wanted the same complete freedom that the United States had  granted to Cuba, and would settle for nothing less. As a result of the impact of the Paris treaty on the Philippines, a     fierce and bloody conflict arose between the Americans and the Filipinos.

In the United States the fighting   is referred to  as the Philippine Insurrection, the Filipino people call it the Philippine-American War.  Many  American and Filipino scholars believe the term “Philippine Insurrection” is not only a contradiction in terms, but in concept as well.  Irrespective of how one chooses to identify the fighting,   it was ruthless and savage, and there were Freemasons on both sides who fought against each other.

Arthur MacArthur the father of Douglas, had won the Congressional Medal of Honor as a Union Officer at Missionary Ridge in the Civil  War.   He was made a Master Mason in Magnolia Lodge No.60 at Little Rock Arkansas on December 5, 1879. In the Spanish American  war he led a contingent  against the Spanish army in Manila  and later fought against the Filipinos in the  Philippine Insurrection.

Douglas MacArthur had yet to get some glimmer of the meaning  of Brother Kipling’s  “Ballad of East and West,”  when in  1903, as  a young 1st  Lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers, he  was assigned to the Philippines. He was posted first to the port  of Iloilo on Panay and later to Tacloban where he supervised  the construction of a dock and led patrols on Leyte. Although President Theodore Roosevelt issued a proclamation on July  4, 1902 ending the Philippine Insurrection, that didn’t stop some of the Visayan men from venting their dislike of the Americans, which MacArthur had been warned about. In November  he led a detachment into a jungle which he knew to be dangerous, to obtain timber for piling and was ambushed by two guerrilla fighters. A bullet tore through the crown of his campaign hat and lodged in a sapling behind him. MacArthur drew his .38 revolver and shot both guerrillas. He contracted malaria in 1904, and was transferred back to Manila. While there he passed his examination for the rank of first lieutenant, and was subsequently  ordered to survey Mariveles, at the tip of Bataan.

Dining at the Army-Navy Club one evening with a fellow officer he was introduced to  two young Filipinos, Manuel Quezon and Sergio Osmena. More than  likely none of these three men could foresee that in the  years to  follow fate would  bring them together during a devastating  war and in peace time.

Manuel Luis Quezon is considered by many Filipinos as the Father of Philippine Independence. He was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of the Philippines in 1918, the first Filipino to hold that exalted office. Manuel Quezon was president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 until his death at Lake Saranac, New York, on August 1, 1944. He was inaugurated  for his second term of office as President in an air-raid shelter on Corregidor.

Sergio Osmena served as Vice-President of the Philippines under Quezon, and accompanied him to the United States after the Imperial Forces of Japan had taken the Philippines. He became President when Quezon died. In January 1945 he accompanied Mac Arthur as they waded ashore at Leyte, and later helped to integrate the Filipino guerrilla forces with the U.S. Army. Osmena became head of the new civilian government after the Philippines was liberated.

Thirty-two years after meeting Quezon and Osmena, when MacArthur was raised to the sublime degree of Master Mason in the Philippines, he began to appreciate the sentiment expressed by Kipling in “The Ballad Of East And West.”


Douglas MacArthur  became a Freemason while serving as field marshal in the capacity  of military advisor to the commonwealth government of the Philippines. He did not join the Craft in the conventional way by petitioning a Lodge for the degrees of Masonry.  For that matter, either by design or by fate MacArthur did very few things during his lifetime in the conventional manner.

For the second time in the history of the Grand Lodge of the  Philippines,  Most  Worshipful  Samuel  Hawthorne  exercised his  prerogative to make a “Mason at sight” on January 17,  1936, in the presence of over six hundred Master Masons who watched in breathless  silence in a crowded hall, Samuel Hawthorne, Grand Master of Masons in the Philippines made General Douglas MacArthur a Mason at sight. MacArthur was visibly moved throughout the ceremony. The Entered Apprentice Degree was given with P.G.M. Frederick H. Stevens presiding. Immediately following, P.G.M. Francisco A. Delagado conferred the Fellowcraft Degree on MacArthur. When it was concluded, M.W. Samuel Hawthorne raised General MacArthur to the sublime degree of Master Mason.

It was an impressive ceremony and it included an address  by P.G.M. Eugene Stafford who recalled his very close association with MacArthur’s father, General Arthur MacArthur when he commanded the Philippine division and later served as Military Governor of the Philippines in 1900-1901. Concluding the ceremony, some twenty grizzled veterans still possessing the military bearing  of a bygone era, and almost all Past Masters, who had served  with General Arthur MacArthur, 36 years before, lined  up in the East. It was an extraordinary ceremony, the Freemasons of the Philippines welcomed a prominent American General into the Craft as a brother, and also paid  homage to his father a Freemason who some of the brethren had fought along side of, and others had undoubtedly fought against a generation before. It was a golden moment for Freemasonry in the Philippines and for Douglas MacArthur who had always wanted to be a Freemason like his father. The ceremony lasted for two hours.

After being raised to the sublime degree of Master Mason, Douglas MacArthur affiliated with Manila Lodge No.1 and on March 13th joined the Scottish Rite. On October 19, 1937, he was  elected Knight Commander Court of Honor, and on December 8, 1947, he was coroneted Honorary 33rd Degree at the American Embassy in Tokyo. He became a life member of the Nile Shrine Temple in Seattle, Washington.


Knowing that some high-ranking military officers had testified falsely, and on incomplete information before the two Army  Pearl Harbor Boards investigating the events leading up to, and including the December 7, 1941, surprise  attack on Pearl Harbor by the Empire of Japan, Henry L. Stimson Secretary of War, decided in 1944, that he was going to get at the truth of the matter. Investigations conducted up to that time produced a lot of finger-pointing, an opportunity for some high-ranking military officers to settle old scores, and a chance for some high level civilian government officials to inject their political biases into the proceedings, and also revealed an alarming degree of inter-service rivalry. All of which resulted in a distorted and murky picture of what had  occurred, with no definitive answers. It  was coupled with rumors of conspiracy on the part of President Roosevelt, and some of the men close to him, which was generated by unsubstantiated information, and biased political opponents. The primary problem was that in addition to the above, the second Army Navy Pearl Harbor Board had based its report on misleading testimony, and the lack of critical decrypted information that had been excluded from the investigation!

Henry Stimson appointed a young unassuming major who was a lawyer from the Army’s Judge Advocate General’s Corps,  to conduct a special investigation and question  any one under oath from enlisted personnel to the Chief of  Staff, General George C. Marshall,  who in  his judgment was involved or had pertinent information. The young major was Henry C. Clausen who had served  as the Assistant Recorder to the Army Pearl Harbor  Board’s investigation during the period July 24, 1944 to October 19, 1944, Clausen was a  Freemason, who after the war became the Grand Master of Masons in California and Hawaii, and later the Sovereign Grand Commander, Supreme Council, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States.

Brother Clausen was given written carte blanche authority by Secretary Stimson to conduct his investigation.  He talked to numerous  generals, admirals, and lower ranking officers, some of whom initially were less than cooperative. After they learned the full extent of Bro. Clausen’s authority, and that he was in possession of ultrasecret decoded Japanese messages, which he wore in a self-destructing case, they developed a remarkable improvement in memory. When Bro. Clausen interviewed General Douglas MacArthur in Manila in 1945, he encountered no such problems. He found the General forthcoming and cooperative, as was his Chief of Intelligence, Major General Willoughby. Both men gave Major Clausen sworn affidavits, with no fuss or equivocation.

As Bro. Clausen was about to depart at the conclusion of the interview, General MacArthur talked to him about some personal matters, and  the Major told him that when the war began he had been the Grand Orator of the Grand Lodge of California and Hawaii. This led to a discussion about Freemasonry,  and General MacArthur kept Major Clausen in his office for almost an hour talking about the Craft. The following is  Bro. Clausen’s account of what ensued, “He talked about how to expand in the Far East the moral principles of Freemasonry. Every dictator in history has tried to put the Masons out of business because they believe in freedom. MacArthur was positive that Hitler had poisoned the minds of the Japanese against the Masonic Order for this very reason, and that was why  the Imperial Government of Japan forbade their men from joining the order. MacArthur promised me that if and when he got to Japan, he was going to make sure that such  provisions were eliminated from any future Constitution. He did, too.”

“Since we are talking in this fashion,’ I (Clausen) said, may I tell  you about the plight of some Masonic people in Manila? We have a Lodge not far from here. I drove there the other day, and they don’t have any pencils. They don’t have any paper. The Japanese confiscated everything. I went to the PX and got a load of groceries and gave it to one of the heads, and he gave me a ring to give to my wife. Would there be any objection, General, to my using the military mail to send over some implements that are used to start up the Masonic Lodge, items such as rods, Bibles and so forth?” “Absolutely not,” MacArthur said. “I’m a Mason, my G-2, Willoughby, is a Mason, We’ll make the arrangements for you.”

Our Late Bro. Clausen in his book “Pearl Harbor Final Judgment” describes the subsequent events as follows, “Well Willoughby went overboard. He told me to send anything I wanted. So, when I got back to Washington, I thought that the first thing I should send was a master’s hat, because the Master of the Masonic Lodge wears a tall silk hat, plus rods and other implements of the order. The Masons in Washington thought I was nuts, but I managed to get everything that was needed to start the Lodge going again, and shipped it to Manila. In later years, whenever Willoughby came through San Francisco from Japan, where he was stationed in MacArthur’s occupation headquarters, he’d stop by and tell me about the Masons in Manila. MacArthur was also instrumental in getting the confiscated Masonic property in Manila and Japan returned to the Masons.”

Seven months later in 1945, after traveling 55,000 miles, and obtaining sworn affidavits from almost one hundred Army, Navy, civilian and British personnel, Henry Clausen  presented Secretary of War Stimson with an 800-page Top Secret Report, which revealed a failure by the United States to exploit the invaluable intelligence it had obtained prior to the attack  on Pearl Harbor. The report also reveals the truth about Pearl Harbor, and   puts an end to all the conspiracy theories mistakenly based on perjured testimony and self-serving misinformation that unfortunately continues to pollute some historical records.


A little known fact is that when he became Chief of the Occupation Forces in Japan General MacArthur did his best to promote the establishment of Freemasonry in that country, and vigorously promulgated the tenets of the Craft in his dealings with the government officials and people of Japan. When M.W. Estaban Munarriz Grand Master of Masons in the Philippines, visited Japan in 1949, he was received by General MacArthur who encouraged him and the other Freemasons present to spread the principles of Freemasonry in Japan.

In his Inaugural Address, M.W. Werner  P. Schetelig, Grand Master of Masons in the Philippines said in part “A District Grand Lodge for Japan has come into being….to consolidate what Philippine Masonry decided to do a few years ago upon the suggestion of Brother MacArthur.” On June 2, 1954, M.W. Worshipful Schetelig, and his Grand Secretary, Grand Marshal, and Grand Chaplain flew to Tokyo and instituted the District Grand Lodge of Japan.  In 1957, the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of Japan was founded.

When Douglas MacArthur completed his service in Japan and the Philippines, he could fully appreciate Bro. Kipling’s “Ballad of East and West,” first hand. His relationship with the people of the Philippines and Japan at all political, military, social and economical levels validated Bro. Kipling’s belief that race and ethnicity are not a barrier when good men work together  to achieve a goal for the common good.


After he retired from the Army for the second time, Douglas MacArthur addressed several groups on Americanism and Freemasonry. On one occasion he made the following presentation about Freemasonry: “It embraces the highest moral laws and will bear the test of any system of ethics or philosophy ever promulgated for the uplift of man…its requirements are the things that are right, and its restraints are the things that are wrong…inculcating doctrines of patriotism and brotherly love, enjoying sentiments of exalted benevolence, encouraging all that is good, kind and charitable, reprobating all that is cruel and oppressive, its observance will uplift everyone under its influence …to do good to others, to forgive enemies, to love neighbors, to restrain passions, to honor parents, to respect authority,  to return good for evil, not to bear false witness, not to lie, not to steal-these are the essential elements of the moral law.”

In 1961, at age 81, MacArthur was invited to the Philippines to join in the celebration of the 15th Anniversary of the formation of the Republic of the Philippines. In Manila over two million people gathered to cheer him as the man who led the battle to liberate them from the oppressive rule of Imperial Japan in World War II. MacArthur died at age 84, in 1964.

Underneath the sometimes imperious manner of Douglas MacArthur who had suffered the bitter agony of military defeat and  had also basked in the glory of highly successful major military victories, was a man whose belief in the tenets of Freemasonry was absolute.


At age 62 Douglas MacArthur was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for conspicuous leadership in the Philippines. Douglas MacArthur and his father Arthur MacArthur are the only father and son recipients of the highest military award for bravery that can be given to an individual in the United States.


Votaries of Honor, Grand Lodge of the Philippines, 1984.

Philippine Freemasonry,  by Teodoro M. Kalaw, 1920. An English    translation from the Spanish by Frederick H. Stevens & Antonio    Amechazurra, 1956.  McCullough Printing.

American Caesar, Douglas MacArthur 1880-1964, by William      Manchester, 1978. Little, Brown.

Philippine American Relations, by Frank H. Golay, 1966.

The American Pacific, by Arthur P. Dudden, 1992. Oxford       University Press.

The Craft In The East, by Christopher Haffner, 1988. District    Grand Lodge of Hong Kong.

The Untold Story of Douglas MacArthur, by Frazier Hunt, 1954.     Signet Books.

A Choice of Kipling’s Verse, by T.S, Eliot, 1941. First published    in this edition, 1963, by Messrs. Methuen and  Macmillan.

Pearl Harbor Final Judgement, by Henry C. Clausen and Bruce    Lee, 1992. Crown Publishers.

The Medal of Honor, The Letter G In Valor, by S. Kenneth     Baril, Revised 1995, Weidner Publishing Group.

MacArthur, by Sidney L. Mayer, 1971, Ballantine Books

MacArthur in Japan, by Sidney L. Mayer, 1973, Ballantine Books

Note: The author is a Past Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge        of Hawaii F,& A.M. and presently the Grand Historian.

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